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Funding for the research activities carried out at IMSE-CNM comes primarily from the participation in competitive tender processes. The research is then conducted out via agreements, projects and contracts with national and international public organizations and private companies and organizations.


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CORDION
Cognitive Radio Digitizers for loT Nodes
PI: José M. de la Rosa Utrera
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Type: Research project
Reference: PID2019-103876RB-I00
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación
Start date: 01/06/2020
End date: 31/05/2023
Funding: 55.902,00 €
Abstract: IoT (Internet of Things) implies the interconnection of billions of cyberphysical entities, capable of communicating with each other, without the need lor human intervention, also relerred to machine-to-machine communication. However, the practical implementation of IoT requires also the development of electronic devices that are secure and efficient in terms of cost and energy consumption. They also need to be equipped with a certain level of intelligence giving rise lo the so-called smart devices/objects and autonomy, so that they can make decisions in real time, and locally, i.e. withoul being connected to remate servers.
The so-called Cognitive Radio (CR) technology allows communication systems to make a more efficient use of the electromagnetic spectrum, by dynamically modifying its transmission and reception parameters according to the information sansed from the environment a technique also referred to as spectrum sensing. One of the direct consequences of the physical implementations of CR-based terminals is that the digitizers, i.e. the circuits responsible for transforming the signal from the analog to the digital domain, should be placed as clase as possible to the antenna, so that most of the hardware is digital and hence, it is easier to program vía software.
Another key technology enabler for the development of CR-based IoT nodes is the need to embed a certain degree of Artificial Intelligence (Al), so that they can set their specifications in an optimum and autonomous way, according to the environment conditions (communication coverage, spectrum occupancy, intereferences), battery status and energy consumption.
In this scenario, this project aims to address some of the design challenges for the increased in-coming digital-driven world directly linked to the Economía, Sociedad y Cultura Digitales, which is one of the priority challenges of the Plan Estatal 2017- 2020. To this end, AI-managed digitizers for CR-based IoT nodes will be developed in this project.

MIRABRAS
Millimeter-sized Implant with embedded Responsive Artificial intelligence for Brain disorder Assistance
PI: Manuel Delgado Restituto
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Type: Research project
Reference: PID2019-110410RB-I00
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación
Start date: 01/06/2020
End date: 31/05/2023
Funding: 137.819,00 €
Abstract: This Project aims to provide enabling microelectronic technologies for the integration and miniaturization of a smart implantable neural stimulation system, which serves as experimental vehicle for the development of new procedures in neurophysiology and, ultimately, for the implementation of new neural prosthesis, more focus and safe than those currently available, for the understanding and treatment of different pathologies of the nervous system, with emphasis in brain disorders, such as including Alzheimers disease, epilepsy or Parkinsons disease.
In particular, this Project will explore emerging approaches for treating neural disorders in which regenerative medicine techniques (interneuron transplants expressing regenerative promoters) are combined with optogenetics stimulation. In this application, small implantable neural interface devices in millimeter-scale are needed to deliver light stimuli and interact with the transplant for attenuating disease pathologies. Compared to electrical stimulation, the optogenetic approach allows selectively exciting individual cells with very high spatial and temporal accuracy, leaving the rest of the cells intact and, thus, reducing side effects.
In another aspect, the Project will advance towards the practical implementation of a reliable and efficient closed-loop mechanism which, based on the electrical activity recorded from the genetically encoded cells, is able to provide an efficient and non-harmful actuation by optical means. This real-time feedback procedure will support the adaptability of the system to the plasticity of the neural tissue and, thereby, it will open up doors for the implementation of robust, long lifetime neural prosthesis whose operation self-adjusts to the patient's progress. In order to improve the selectivity and detection accuracy of the closed-loop system, Artificial Intelligence (AI) paradigms will be explored seeking an optimum equilibrium between efficiency and hardware cost.
Also, to favor miniaturization, the Project will investigate the integration of fully wireless solutions in the implant both for data and power transfer. Through analysis, simulation, and measurements on prototypes, different coil structures will be explored for powering mm-sized neural interfaces, paying attention to keep the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) of electromagnetic (EM) field in the tissue under safe limits.

VOLUM
Prognostic value of real-time body volumes monitoring by continuous bioimpedance measurement in patients with acute heart failure (HEART-FAIL VOLUM)
PI: Alberto Yúfera García
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Type: Research project
Reference: DTS19/00134
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 46.200,00 €
Abstract: Heart failure (HF) is the currently leading cause of hospitalization in people over 65 years in Europe. The standard evaluation of this disease does not reliably predict HF outcome. Volume overload due to neuro-hormonal activation is the primary factor leading to HF hospitalisation, and volume measurements by bioimpedance (BI) have preliminary shown to be useful for diagnosis and prognosis. However, the measures are performed punctually, or in a short period, but the dynamics of fluid overload in patients with acute HF during hospitalisation and after discharge have not been previously described. The aim of this study is evaluate the prognostic value of monitoring changes in body volumes by continuous BI measurement with a novel wearable device to predict early clinical outcome in patients with acute HF.

VIGILANT
The Variability Challenge in Nano-CMOS: From Device Modeling to IC Design for Mitigation and Exploitation
PI: Francisco V. Fernández Fernández / Rafael Castro López
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Type: Research project
Reference: PID2019-103869RB-C31
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/06/2020
End date: 31/05/2023
Funding: 117.491,00 €
Abstract: Electronic devices flood many aspects of our lives. The wondrous evolution of nano-CMOS technologies with the emergence of new materials and devices is behind it. The demand for integrated circuits (ICs) is not without challenges though: our modern digital economy and society requires them to be more functional, more reliable, safer and more secure, and fields like IoT, Cybersecurity and Highperformance computing are now priorities in many research agendas.
However, one critical obstacle in this evolution is variability, culprit for the device parametric fluctuations deriving in a reliability loss of the IC. Rising right after fabrication (TZV, Time-Zero Variability) or during the IC lifetime (TDV, Time-Dependent Variability), it ends up critically compromising its functionality or even cutting short its lifetime. If variability is undealt with, ICs will no longer be able to fulfil the capabilities of safety, security, and reliability.
VIGILANT faces up this challenge from two perspectives. It will first develop solutions and new design paradigms to lessen or tolerate variability; the goal is clear: mitigate its negative impact. Second, realizing variability has also a beneficial side, TZV and TDV will be exploited for hardware-based security. While this duality mitigation/exploitation is one key goal, there is another cross-cutting goal: the evaluation of several technologies and their potential for the duality, from the established bulk CMOS, through the versatile FDSOI, to beyond-CMOS alternatives like memristors. To undertake the goals, VIGILANT needs the complementary expertise of teams (IMSE, UAB and UPC) with a successful track record in the collaborative investigation of variability.

NANO-MIND
Neuromorphic Perception and NANO-Memristive CognItioN for High-SpeeD Robotic Actuation
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco / Teresa Serrano Gotarredona web
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Type: Research project
Reference: PID 2019-105556GB
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/06/2020
End date: 31/05/2024
Funding: 208.770,00 €
Abstract: In the last years, due to the availability of large amounts of annotated data and the increase of the computation capability of highperformance computing platforms, we have witnessed a resurgence of artificial intelligence (AI) and neuro-inspired computation. AI systems outperforming human beings in image classification tasks have been demonstrated. However, those systems still lag well behind human beings if we compare them in terms of speed and energy efficiency. The intensive computation requirements of AI recognition systems cause that the developed AI systems for our portable devices perform computations on the cloud. It has been foreseen that by the year 2025, one-fifth of the world's electricity will be consumed by the internet.
The development of efficient information coding schemes and low power AI hardware platforms is a must if we want to witness the spreadof AI systems while keeping an affordable energy budget. Current state-of-the-art AI systems are based on an information coding and processing paradigm which is quite different from the way biological brains code and process the information. If we consider vision as an example, state-of-the-art AI computational vision systems code and process the information as sequences of static frames. However, biological neurons produce and communicate sequences of spikes. In this context, the so-called third generation of neural networks or spiking neural networks has emerged to emulate the efficiency in information coding and computation of human brains.
However, spiking neural networks computational systems lack the maturity of frame-based conventional computing systems in terms of theoretical development, learning and controlling algorithms and availability of event-based sensors, event-based hardware computing platforms, and event-based robotic actuators.
The NANO-MIND project aims to advance in the theoretical and hardware development of neuromorphic spiking neural systems from the sensors level, to the processing level up to the control and actuation level.

HEART-FAIL VOLUM
Valor pronóstico en tiempo real para la monitorización del volumen mediante medidas de bioimpedancias en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca aguda
PI: Alberto Yúfera García
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Type: Research project
Reference: DTS19/00134
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 21/12/2021
Funding: 46.200,00 €
Abstract: La insuficiencia cardíaca (IC) es la principal causa de hospitalización en personas mayores de 65 años en Europa. La evaluación clínica estándar no permite predecir de forma fiable la evolución de esta enfermedad. La sobrecarga de volumen debido a la activación neuro-hormonal es el principal factor implicado en las hospitalizaciones por IC, y las mediciones de los volúmenes corporales por bioimpedancia (BI) han demostrado de manera preliminar que son útiles en el diagnóstico y pronóstico. Sin embargo, las medidas se realizan puntualmente, o en un período corto, pero la dinámica de la sobrecarga de líquidos en pacientes con IC aguda durante la hospitalización y tras el alta no se han descrito previamente. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar el valor pronóstico de la monitorización de los volúmenes corporales en tiempo real mediante la medición continua de BI con un nuevo dispositivo portátil para predecir precozmente la evolución clínica en pacientes con IC aguda.


MEDACAL-SPHERE
MEDA Wind Sensor Calibration and Spherical Wind Sensor ASIC
PI: Servando Espejo Meana
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Type: Research project
Reference: RTI2018-098728-B-C32
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2019
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 176.055,00 €
Abstract: Sub-project MEDACAL-SPHERE has two specific objectives within the coordinated project. Both objectives are connected among them. The first one is to contribute and support the measurements, calibration, and the interpretation of the data obtained from the MEDA wind sensor, which uses a mixed-signal ASIC designed using radiation hardening by design techniques and which performs the conditioning, acquisition and conversion of the sensor signals. This ASIC was developed by the research team in the framework of previous research projects (the MEDA wind-sensor ASIC). The second objective is the design, fabrication and validation of a new mixed-signal ASIC for a new generation of the wind sensor, the so called spherical wind sensor, developed like the previous one by the Polytechnic University of Catalonia. This new version of wind sensor, more accurate than the previous one, will be used as a reference element for the fine calibration of the MEDA wind sensor, which will be sent to Mars, therefore connecting with the first objective. As a result, this new ASIC,which constitutes the second objective, will have the double function of completing the development of the new generation of spherical wind sensors, and serve as a reference for the detailed calibration of the sensors sent to Mars in the framework of NASAs Mars2020.

iSTENT
Real Time Monitoring of Hemodinamic Variables using Smart Stents (iSTENT) based on Capacitive and Bioimpedance Sensors
PI: Alberto Yúfera García
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Type: Research project
Reference: RTI2018-093512-B-C21
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2019
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 99.704,00 €
Abstract: The coordinated proposal Real Time Monitoring of Hemodinamic Variables Using Smart Stents (iSTENT) Based on Capacitive and Bioimpedance Sensors aims to progress towards the design and manufacture of microsystems for the real-time monitoring of Intra Stent Restenosis (ISR) and Heart Failure (HF) by means of measuring relevant parameters for the diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases. In short, collaborating to improve the life quality of patients, thanks to the advancement in eHealth, increasing the effectiveness of biomedical monitoring systems.
The SubProject 1 (SP1) Integrated Microsystem based on bioimpedance measurements for the monitoring of arterial restenosis, focuses its work hypothesis on the implementation of electrical bioimpedance measurements to obtain the required useful information of the stent that allows to evaluate the degree of the coronary artery obstruction where it is implanted, as well as the hemodynamic variables involved in its state. The SubProject 2 (SP2) Integrated heterogeneous system for the monitoring of heart failure based on capacitive pressure sensors, proposes to use capacitive MEMS pressure sensors for the monitoring of blood pressure and HF by means of the left ventricle preload. Thus, SP1 pursues the realization of an iStent with the ability to monitor its internal obstruction (ISR) once implanted, avoiding the invasive and high risk procedure for the patient that involves performing a catheterization. Similarly, SP2 proposes the design, characterization and manufacture of an iStent for the monitoring of the HF, based on an heterogeneous integrated circuit for the pressure measurement in the distal pulmonary artery without having to use invasive diagnostic techniques. Besides, both proposals target the adquisition of additional measurements of other hemodynamic variables.

ASICs-AVATART
High-Speed and High-Voltage ASICs for Extreme Radiation and Temperature Enviroments
PI: Diego Vázquez García de la Vega
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Type: Research project
Reference: RTI2018-099825-B-C32
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2019
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 146.652,00 €
Abstract: This project (ASICs-AVATART) supposes a necessary and important technological activity of development of mixed signal ASICs for space applications. This activity was started in 2008 within the framework of the MetNet mission and resulted in the creation of a group at the Microelectronics Institute of Seville/University of Seville, which has since them specialized in this type of designs. Thanks to this effort, it has been possible to respond, for example, to the need arising within the framework of the aforementioned MEDA station (to condition the signal of its wind sensors) and the possibility of making recurrent systems more and more compact (less weight, volume, consumption, etc.) as the ASIC-SIS20 for solar irradiance sensors (InMars). It should be noted that IMSE/US has its own RHBD library in AMS 0.35μm technology, with designs that have been shown to operate at temperatures of -126°C, and that also has experience in designs for space with other technologies and libraries (IMEC-DARE in UMC 180 nm, SOI-XFAB).
It should be noted that the development of mixed-signal ASICs for space use is identified in H2020 as a strategic line for Europe and nondependence. This project aims to advance in the line of Integrated Circuits for radiation environments and with the particularity of very low temperatures. Specifically, the project focuses on High Voltage and High Speed cases. Although there are works in this regard, the particularity of the present project is that it is intended that the circuits work at very low temperatures without having to be heated to accommodate the operating situation to the typical industrial temperature ranges for which they are usually characterized. On the other hand, the high speed and / or high voltage features usually require different technologies, which is why this project seeks to integrate them into the same package by exploring the multi-die techniques. Of course, these techniques must also be adapted to operate at very low temperatures without the need for heating. In the end, this project aims to provide increasingly compact solutions that are equipped with added values such as reliability and re-usability.

StatSeT
Statistical approach to defect simulation in complex Analog and Mixed-Signal circuits: application to radiation-induced Single-Event Transients
PI: Gildas Léger
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Type: Research project
Reference: RTI2018-098513-B-I00
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2019
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 75.141,00 €
Abstract: In salety-critical applications, detecting fabrication delects is of utmost importance, even if they do not impact significantly the performance. Defect-oriented test approaches are thus necessary, but their validation is cumbersome. Indeed, defect simulation is unavoidable but computationally demanding. For complex Analog and Mixed-Signal (AMS) circuits and systems, the number of defect candidates may be very large. If the evaluation of each defect candidate requires a complex transient simulation, exhaustive simulation is simply intractable. Sound statistical approaches to estimate defect coverage have been proposed, but one of the main shortcomings of these approaches is that of experimental validation. On one hand, it is almost impossible to get access to delect statistics of commercíal parts since this data is a very sensitive in terms of company image. On the other hand, it is al so impossible to manulacture (and test) a sulficient amount of circuits to get reliable statístics in an academic environmenl. Europractice integration services usually give access to around 50 parts, very far of the production level necessary to estimate a defectivity rate in the arder of tens 01 ppm.
In order to tackle this validation issue, this project propases to adapt the framework of statistical assessment of defect coverage to the study of radiation-induced Single-Event Transient (SET) sensitivity in complex Analog and Mixed-Signal circuits.

ENVISAGE
Enabling Vision Technologies for Integrated Intelligent Transportation
PI: Ricardo Carmona Galán
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Type: Research project
Reference: RTI2018-097088-B-C31
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 01/01/2019
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 144.958,00 €
Abstract: The objective of this project is the development of embedded vision systems for intelligent transport. The aim is to capture the specificities of this field of application and incorporate them into a holistic design flow. In this way, we will develop embedded vision systems adapted for autonomous platforms and vehicles and to be incorporated to the traffic control and monitoring infrastructure. The main challenge will be the implementation of an important amount of computing power under a restricted power budget. The conventional approach, in which the different components are developed separately from specifications derived from a high-Ievel description, can be inefficient, leading to sub-optimal performance. Our approach consists of multi-parametric and multi-Ievel optimization.
We will develop a system description tool that will allow us to navigate the hierarchy of the vision system and propagate specifications and restrictions from the device- to the application-Ievel and vice versa.

HARDBLOCK
Hardware-based Security for Blockchain Technologies
PI: Iluminada Baturone Castillo
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Type: Research project
Reference: RTC-20176595-7
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 2018
End date: 30/06/2021
Funding: 175.170,00 €
Abstract: Objectives of the project:
· The main objective of HardBlock project is to develop a blockchain technology able to reduce the scalability problems of public blockchains.
· The new concepts of Proofs of Physical Existence and Proofs of Physical Presence will be exploited to reduce the highly maintenance costs of Proofs of Work.
· New hardware elements will be designed and implemented to support the Proofs of Physical Existence, providing the unique identification of things and avoiding tampering and counterfeiting.
· New hardware elements will be designed and implemented to support the Proofs of Physical Presence using biometrics. The objective is the user authentication with the highest authentication level (AAL3 according to NIST SP 800-63): using a compact and tamper-resistant device, under the control of the user, and with template protection.
· HardBlock will provide secure key exchange without using trusted third parties and avoiding man-in-the-middle attacks, and will exploit the use of post-quantum algorithms mainly based on lattice cryptography.
· The project will explore new application fields such as the combination of Internet of Things (IoT) with blockchain technologies.

HW-IDENTIoTY
Design of hardware solutions to manage people and things identities with trust, security, and privacy in IoT ecosystem
PI: Iluminada Baturone Castillo / Piedad Brox Jiménez web
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Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2017-83557-R
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 2018
End date: 30/09/2021
Funding: 139.150,00 €
Abstract: In the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, people will be surrounded by a growing number of smart devices with sensors and actuators, which capture information about our environments and act upon them autonomously (our cities, homes, cars or bycicles and even our body). As a matter of fact, people already interact more with or through these devices instead of interacting directly. The IoT infraestructure is aimed at improving our quality of life, but if it is not trust, secure and does not guarantee our privacy, the consequences can be catastrophic.
A first challenging aspect is to ensure that individuals and devices are trusted and authentic and, hence, that their identities are resistant to impersonation and counterfeiting. Since the physical nature of an IoT device lies in the hardware it is made of, HW-IDENTIoTY project will design hardware solutions based on physical unclonable functions (PUFs) to generate inherent identities of devices. Since the unique features of a person can be captured by a biometric recognition system, HW-IDENTIoTY project will design hardware solutions to implement lightweight biometric recognition techniques that could be implemented in a wearable, so that the digital identity of the person is generated locally by a trusted device under the supervision of the identity owner.
A second critical issue is to guarantee privacy. For this purpose, the digital identities will be transformed in such a way that the resulting data cannot be attributed to a specific individual or device without the use of additional information. HW-IDENTIoTY project will design hardware solutions to implement Helper Data algorithms in the case of devices and template protection techniques in the case of individuals.
The third aspect addressed will be the design of hardware solutions robust against attacks to implement cryptographic primitives paradigm. They will be related to symmetric and lightweight cryptography in the case of wearables (with constrained resources and low-power consumption requirements) and to elliptic curve cryptography in the case of embedded systems. The availability of counterfeit-resistant identities will be exploited to address problems associated with digital chains of custody and traceability in IoT.

PULPOSS
Processing for Ultra Low POwer using Steep Slope devices: circuits and arquitectures
PI: María J. Avedillo de Juan / José M. Quintana Toledo
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Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2017-87052-P
Funding Body: Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades
Start date: 2018
End date: 30/06/2021
Funding: 85.910,00 €
Abstract: Different applications with a great social and economic impact (loT, wearables, implantable devices, WSNs) demand circuits with very low power consumption and efficient in terms of energy. In this context, the field-effect transistor has severe limitations associated with its SS, that cannot be reduced below 60mVldec, which prevents it from reducing its polarization voltage, without significantly degrading its performance in terms of speed or excessively increasing its leakage curren!. Currently important efforts are devoted to the development of "steep slope" devices that do not exhibit this limitation. This project addresses the design of circuits and architectures implemented with these transistors in order to contribute to the development of such applications. The work developed in NACLUDE (TEC2013-40670-P) with tunneling transistors (TFETs) is extended to other steep slope devices, including negative capacitan ce transistors (NCFET, FeFET), transistors incorporating materials that exhibi! phase !ransitions (HyperFET, PC-FET) or "super steep slope" devices tha! combine these physical phenomena with TFETs (PC-TFET, NC-TFET) to improve their performance.
Although there is consensus in the scientific community about !he potential of these devices to implement circuits more efficient in terms of power consumption and energy than MaS and FinFET transistors, the simple replacement of conventional transistors by steep slope devices does not allow to obtain the maximum benefit of its use. It is necessary to adapt the topologies andlor architectures to the distinctive characteristics of ea eh device. The general objective of this project is the development of logical architectures and circuits with steep slope devices to optimize their performance in terms of power, energy or power-speed trade-offs in different application scenarios. The specific objectives that we formulate are: 1) To develop, analyze, validate and evaluate appropriate topologies for basic logical blocks; 2) to Develop, analyze, validate and evaluate appropriate logic architectures; 3) To apply design techniques for low power; 4) To explore alternative computing paradigms to CMOS logic; 5) To maintain a library of models of steep-slope devices updated with the advances and proposals that are taking place.

ASIC-SIS
ASIC for compacts solar irradiation sensor
PI: Diego Vázquez García de la Vega
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Type: Research project
Reference: ESP2016-80320-C2-2-R
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad
Start date: 30/12/2016
End date: 29/09/2019
Funding: 169.400,00 €
Abstract: This Project (ASIC-SIS) represents a very important technology activity for the development of a Mixed-Signal ASIC for special applications in the Mars surface. This activity started years ago (2008) in the context of the MetNet mission and give as a result the creation of a research group in the IMSE-CNM/University of Seville specialized in this kind of designs. Thanks to these efforts, it was possible to provide solutions to the needs of signal conditioning and compaction of wind sensors for the MEDA station.
It should be mentioned that the development of Mixed-Signal ASICs for space use has been identified in H200 as a strategic line for Europe and the not dependence. This project follows this line intending the development of an ASIC to support future and even more compact Solar Irradiation Sensors (SIS) that are being recursively used for surface mission in Mars (SIS are present in 4 missions: MetNet, EXM'16, EXM'18 y Mars2020); it demonstrates the large interest of this kind of systems. So, the project aims the maximum compaction as possible of the SIS but also providing added values of reliability and re-usability as well as incrementing its scientific potential to become a reference sensor at international level for future missions.
Namely, the global ASIC-SIS objective is the development of a Mixed-Signal CMOS ASIC for the advanced Solar Irradiation Sensor (SIS). It contemplates all the required phases or steps: definition of specifications and/or requirements, synthesis at different levels (architectural, circuits blocks, devices, etc.), fabrication, validation, qualification, etc., AII the work concerning the design of the ASIC will be carried out by the US but in collaboration with INTA, who will give the necessary support in the specifications and requirements during the different validation steps. Finally, the US will give to INTA the support to perform the validations of a compact SIS prototype including the ASIC.

INTERVALO
Integration and validation in laboratory of countermeasures against side-channel attacks in microelectronic cryptocircuits
PI: Antonio J. Acosta Jiménez / Carlos J. Jiménez Fernández
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Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2016-80549-R
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad
Start date: 30/12/2016
End date: 29/12/2019
Funding: 104.544,00 €
Abstract: Security and privacy in communication are certainly one major right for institutions and people in general, being those factors of strategic interest in our society. Nowadays there are many electronic devices in which security is a must and most of these systems use cryptographic techniques to achieve confidentiality and inviolability in private data management. Many secure electronic systems include cryptographic devices implementing mathematical algorithms that are directed to hide sensitive information. However, due to their specific implementation as a circuit, side channel attacks can be successfully performed and information extracted. Therefore, paying special attention to the physic implementation of cryptographic devices is a crucial point to minimize the leak of information under side channel attacks. Hence, hardware implementations in the case of cryptographic algorithms require an adequate and correct realization of algorithms from the functional point of view as much as the inclusion of robust security mechanisms in order to diminish vulnerability. Most of portable security applications (RFID keys, USB memories, smart cards, etc.) use symmetric encryption that has to be integrated in very low power hardware (lightweight cryptography) what has to be required in the new environments resulting of the Internet of things. This Project aims to obtain a set of countermeasures libraries to be included in high performance hardware implementations (ASICs) in CMOS nanometer technology. The focus will be to increase the security of portable systems against side attacks facing secure (de)ciphering problems. Countermeasures will be proposed at a variety of abstraction levels, going from architecture to layout. These will be ready to be used in any stream or block cipher for any kind of application. Different strategies of passive attacks based on power analysis (DPA), electromagnetic emissions (DEMA) and active non-invasive attacks based on fault injection (clock signal, power supply, temperature) and invasive (light source or pulsed laser) will be considered. Hardware implementations (ASIC) will be developed, including area, frequency and power consumption optimization as well as side channel attacks security improvement. The main concern will be to optimize the systems performance accomplishing security increases with no penalties for this performance. To this aim, vulnerability measures, both experimental and simulated will be very important to qualify the countermeasures and the designed hardware.
The three primary targets of the Project are:
To develop automatic experimental mechanisms to analyze the vulnerability of hardware implementations of ciphering circuits and its application on real implementations.
To propose, design and test hardware countermeasures of different categories to diminish vulnerability in crypto circuits.
To design, integrate and test an ASIC with ciphers including the proposed countermeasures and include the ASIC in a IoT system to evaluate the improvements in security in real systems.

MINES-SVM
Microelectronics for Space Instrumentation: MEDA Wind-Sensor ASIC
PI: Servando Espejo Meana
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Type: Research project
Reference: ESP2016-79612-C3-3-R
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad
Start date: 30/12/2016
End date: 29/12/2019
Funding: 266.200,00 €
Abstract: MINES-SVM, as a sub-project within the coordinated project M3EC, has specific objectives related to the development of the mixed-signal ASIC required for the MEDA wind sensor, which will be included in NASA's Mars2020 mission. An operative prototype of this ASIC is currently (April 2016) available, as a result of previous projects and contracts. It is in its final functional verification stage, and will probably satisfy the requirements and specs of the instrument. The technology employed for the design and manufacturing of the ASIC is a standard 0.35 microns CMOS process. This technology had been previously characterized for space use by the research team, also in the framework of previous projects.
The MEDA ASIC performs the functions of analog front-end for temperature sensors based on platinum resistors and thermopiles, and sigma-delta thermal control loops and power measurements. This includes signal conditioning and analog to digital conversion, as well as configuration and data communications through a standard digital interface. The design employs Radiation Hardening By Design (RHBD) techniques, including functional redundancy and specific layout techniques.
Within this framework, the first objective of MINES-SVM is to finalize the test and validation for space use of this ASIC. This includes the completion of the electrical functional tests, as well as the verification of the radiation hardness and the behavior at low and high temperatures through specific additional tests.
The ASIC must be manufactured again in order to achieve a minimum number of samples, as required by the formal screening associated with its use in space. Minor refinements could be introduced in the design in this new manufacturing lot, depending on the results of the functional tests and the radiation hardness and low-temperature tests. In any case, the final version of the ASIC, with its final packaging, will need to be qualified for space use following formal processes by an external agent. This will require the design of several test systems for the functional/electrical validation tests, and for those tests related to radiation tolerance (both TID and SEEs), low-temperature behaviour, and life-tests of the ASIC. The second objective of MINES-SVM is the integration of the ASIC in the engineering and flight modules of the wind sensor, and the calibration of the overall measuring system. The integration of the wind sensor within the rover, considering possible effects on the measuring function, will also be supported.
The main result of MINES-SVM will be the availability of this space-qualified ASIC. This will represent a clear competitive advantage for future missions and similar designs.
As a collateral result, this subproject will help to consolidate the space-microelectronics design capability at a national level. The technologies involved have been identified as critical at the European level, including microelectronics, discrete-components electronics, advanced packaging materials, and the mitigation of the radiation effects on electronic systems. In summary, the background objective is to generate, at a national level, a complete set of mature and high performance resources for the development of space instruments demanded by the national or international scientific community, or by other sectors traditionally linked to the space sector like those of Security and Defense.

IPANEMA
Integrated Pattern-Adaptive optical NEurostimulator with Multi-site recording Array
PI: Manuel Delgado Restituto
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2016-80923-P
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad
Start date: 01/01/2017
End date: 29/12/2019
Funding: 145.200,00 €
Abstract: This Project aims to provide enabling microelectronic technologies for the integration and miniaturization of a smart neural stimulation system based on optogenetics, which serves as experimental vehicle for the development of new procedures in neurobiology and, ultimately, for the implementation of new neural prosthesis, more focus and secure than those currently available, for the treatment of different pathologies of the nervous system (severe sensory deficits, brain diseases, chronic pain, and others).
Within this general scenario, our objective will be to provide the basis towards a reliable and efficient closed-loop mechanism which, based on the electrical activity recorded from the genetically encoded cells, is able to provide an efficient and non-harmful actuation by optic means. This real-time feedback procedure will support the adaptability of the system to the plasticity of the neural tissue and, thereby, it will open up doors for the implementation of robust, long lifetime neural prosthesis whose operation self-adjusts to the patient's progress.
The system to be developed will be scalable and reconfigurable with the number of recording electrodes and optical stimulation sources (it might be regarded as a MIMO -multi-input, multi-output- control system) and will allow the activation of LEOs incorporated into the probe or, alternatively, the triggering of any convenient external light source by means of a custom data pathway. In the former case, LEOs may be placed in direct contact with the tissue (by using micro-LEOs integrated in the probe) or employ optical fibers for guiding photostimulation. For the sake of easy handling, data transfer to/from the complete recording/stimulation system will employ wireless techniques.
According to this concept, the system implementation will encompass the fabrication of two Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) together with so me commercial components (essentially, a microcontroller for supervising the stimulation feedback loop and an ultra-low power wireless transceiver). One of the ASICs, denoted as stimulation ASIC, will implement the stimulation circuitry, whereas, the other ASIC, denoted as acquisition ASIC, will include circuits for recording, processing and communications, as well as a power management unit!. A multi-chip solution is preferred over a single monolithic integration in order to increase the reliability of the system, reduce the fabrication risks, and improve the performance of the neural recording channels which, otherwise, it would become adversely affected by the commutations of the stimulation circuitry.
The ASICs will be fabricated in a low-cost O.18um CMOS technology and tested either individually, or connected one to another in the final system platform. Their characterizations will consist in mixed-signal and optical tests in the premises of our laboratories. Additionally, we will lay plans on the validations of the prototypes with in vitro and in vivo measurements, to be carried out in Bioengineering Institutes with which the applicant group holds collaboration agreements.

TOGETHER
Towards Trusted Low-Power Things: Devices, Circuits and Architectures
PI: Francisco V. Fernández Fernández / Rafael Castro López
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2016-75151-C3-3-R
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad
Start date: 30/12/2016
End date: 29/06/2021
Funding: 240.911,00 €
Abstract: To bridge the gap between the physical and digital worlds, any type of product would need to integrate networked electronic components and systems, built on micro/nanotechnologies, in what has been called "Internet of Things" (IoT). To fulfill the IoT vision, many technology enablers are required, with trusted (i.e., reliable and secure) as well as low-power ICs and components, among others, playing a pivotal role. All these enablers must be properly handled with a multidomain approach -covering device, circuit and architectural levels- in a context where technology scaling has slowed down. Thus, at technology level, innovations in materials and device structures will be required and, next to this, low-power robust circuits and alternative architectures will have to be implemented. Consequently, the experience of researchers with complementary expertise must be properly combined under a collaborative framework. Following these guidelines, device reliability engineers (UAB) and analog and digital circuit designers (IMSE and UPC) will work together in this project on the design of low-power, variability-resilient nanoelectronic circuits and systems, by using a multilevel approach and taking into account IoT challenges.
To achieve this general objective, several lines of work will be followed. Since circuit and system design for IoT relies upon a deep knowledge of phenomena at device level, a detailed statistical and multiscale characterization of the variability in advanced CMOS devices will be done in all regimes of operation, for the development of variability-aware compact models. Emerging devices (i.e., memristors and graphene-based devices) will be also considered to evaluate their suitability as building components in alternative circuits and architectures. At circuit and system levels, low-power and variability-resilient design strategies and methodologies will be developed. Variability will be tackled from two perspectives: palliation and exploitation. From a palliative perspective, adequate design methodologies will be created, able to consider and reduce variability across many hierarchical levels in a complex AMS/RF system. Also, the use of Body Bias modulation for variability mitigation in RF and digital circuits in FDSOI technologies will be analyzed. From the exploitation perspective, unreliability aspects in CMOS and memristive devices will be explored for the implementation of cryptographic primitives. Energy-efficient hierarchical design methodologies will be implemented to reduce power consumption in AMS/RF circuits and ultra-low voltage AMS/RF and digital circuits will be designed. Non-conventional strategies for computing systems and non-von Neumann computing architectures will be studied too. Finally, the adoption of emerging technologies for alternative computing architectures (combining memristors and FETs) as well as neuromorphic architectures will be addressed. The innovations in devices, design techniques, extremely low-power and reliable circuits and architectures will enable competitive advantages in numerous IoT applications and markets, supporting the relevance of the proposed research from the societal, industrial and economical points of view. This fact, together with the experience of the proposing partners, foresees publications and technology transfer of the results.

COGNET
Event-based cognitive vision system. Extension to audio with sensory fusion
PI: Teresa Serrano Gotarredona
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2015-63884-C2-1-P
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Start date: 01/01/2016
End date: 31/12/2020
Funding: 197.956,00 €
Abstract: The global goal of the COGNET project is to advance in the theoretical and technological development of event-based sensing and processing systems and demonstrate its potential to solve practical problems in a more efficient way than conventional technologies do. In particular, in the COGNET project we will address event-based vision and audition sensing, event-based vision and audition recognition systems and their off-line and on-line training, and the fusion of visual and auditive information to perform multisensory recognition tasks in real time. In COGNET, we are trying to demonstrate the superior performance of the event-based technology in two practical problems. The first one is binocular-based high-speed vehicle obstacle detection with few milliseconds response time, and the second one is visually guided speech recognition in a noisy environment.

n-PATETIC
New paradigms for testing mixed-signal integrated circuits
PI: Adoración Rueda Rueda
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: TEC2015-68448-R
Funding Body: Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad
Start date: 01/01/2016
End date: 31/08/2019
Funding: 196.020,00 €
Abstract: This project aims to develop low-cost, reliable, and verifiable test solutions for analog, mixed-signal, and radio frequency circuits (AMS/RF). Capitalizing the skill of the designer on the design process of such circuits and on the limitations of the test techniques developed to date, we intend to seek new test paradigms that allow safely abandon the traditional methods of functional test. In this way, it could contribute to decrease the test cost that represents today about half the cost of manufacturing a complex circuit. We will focus on functional alternative methods and indirect test methods. The first will measure functional parameters but will be less expensive than standard techniques, thus relaxing the requirements of the test equipments. The later would be aimed at the detection of defects, and will be based on the assumption of considering that the circuit is correct by construction and what is sought with the test are indications of possible degradation. This can be a paradigm shift of very important consequences in current electronic products; if the project gives the expected results, this methodology could have a similar impact on the AMS-RF circuits that it had the introduction of the Boundary-Scan in digital circuits.
Since it is extremely complex to reliably validate a technique test before mass production of circuits, also in this project we intend lo address the problem of lest verification, developing behavioral models aimed at facilitating the verification quickly and efficiently.
In this context, the project aims to address three general objectives:
1. Capitalize information on the design process and verification of AMS-RF circuits, creating documentation and/or modeling allowing the development of new test paradigms that represent significant improvements lo the quality/test tradeoff. We want to explore how we can formalize and systematize what we know of the circuit to develop robust and reliable test.
2. Develop reliable and verifiable solutions for the test of these circuits. The shift from a paradigm of functional test, in which the performance of the circuits are measured by standard processes for comparison with your specifications, to a paradigm of indirect test in which the decision to accept or reject a circuit is made based on deviations of so me firms, contains a great potential for significant cost reduction.
3. Explore and develop systematic methodologies for functional low-cost test not only for validating products in the post-production phase, but also with the purpose to their application in 81ST schemes for online test.
As vehicles for proof of concept we will use CMOS prototypes already made by the applicant team, namely, high performance Analog Digital converter (ADC) (> 12bits and up to 1 OOMS / s) and building blocks of front-ends in RF wireless transceivers. Some of these designs have to be adapted to incorporate additional circuitry to facilitate access to certain signals as well as for the implementation of the DfT or BIST techniques derived from the new developed test paradigms.

INFRAESTRUCTURA 5169
Establishment of a Technology Surveillance Service for Promotion and Commercialization of the Technologies Developed at the Institute of Microelectronics of Seville (IMSE-CNM)
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco
[+]
Type: Facilities
Reference: 5169
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/02/2020
End date: 30/06/2022
Funding: 64.647,53 €
Abstract: The common objective of the actions carried out in this project is to increase the transfer to industry and society of the results of the research developed at the Institute of Microelectronics of Seville for the improvement of processes and products and for the development of specific applications. To this end, the creation of a Projects and Transfer Unit with specific tasks of prospecting, dissemination, support and promotion of transfer activities is planned.

The launch of this initiative reflects two motivations of different nature. On the one hand, it seeks to increase the return on investments and guarantee the transfer of results generated in the Institute, augment its visibility in the industrial sector, promote the use of its infrastructures by external research groups, and intensify participation in research and development programs focused on collaboration between public and private entities. On the other hand, the center aims to fulfill its function as Agent of the Andalusian Knowledge System specialized in the area of Microelectronics, making available to Andalusian companies the services and technologies necessary for the development of innovative products.

CEI
Image and vision sensors with vertical integration for artificial intelligence applications
PI: Ángel Rodríguez Vázquez / Juan A. Leñero Bardallo
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: CEI-7-TIC-179
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 27/12/2019
End date: 27/12/2021
Funding: 50.296,40 €
Abstract: The project embraces R&D&I of image and vision sensors implemented with vertical integration technologies to address the challenges imposed by the AI systems in several application scenarios that require miniaturized sensors with very low power consumption. We focus on the automotive, IoT, and robotics as possible target application scenarios.

Particularly, three sensors architectures are considered: a) One based on SPADs to gauge the time-of-flight. b) A high dynamic range sensor with event-driven operation and with the same output data format as classic APS sensors. c) A sensor with very low noise and high operation speed.

SYMAS
Measurement and electrostimulation system for cell differentiation and motility applications
PI: Alberto Yúfera García
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: P18-FR-2308
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 31/12/2023
Funding: 79.800,00 €
Abstract: It is proposed to carry out embedded Electronic Systems (ES) for the supervision and characterization of cells and cell cultures, which allow to act on them by means of programmable electrostimulation signals. The objective is to study, know and improve the techniques of cell differentiation towards different types of lineages and tissues of interest in regenerative medicine. The design and manufacture of systems with reduced weight and size, energy autonomous and wireless are pursued, which reduce the workload, automate experiments and monitor in real time the evolution of a cell culture based on the electrical BioImpedance (BI) as a marker. . It is proposed to monitor the evolution of cell lines: neuroblastomas, myoblastomas and osteoblasts, useful in neuronal therapies and engineering of muscle and bone tissues, towards the conformation of the corresponding cell or tissue type, optimizing the differentiation processes through the adequate design of signals of electrical stimulation. From the results obtained in a first measurement setup, two more setups are proposed: one oriented to the clinical development of tissue engineering; and another dedicated to the study and characterization at the cellular level of electrostimulation processes, through the manufacture of microelectrode arrays (MicroElectrode Array, MEA). Taking advantage of this last setup, cell motility experiments are proposed to determine the position and velocity of tumor cells (MCF7) in cultures, and their use in cancer studies. In summary, ES will be developed for monitoring and electrostimulation measuring electrical BIs, in parallel to a cell and tissue biometry procedure for the real-time identification of the biological material differentiated or not, and its dynamic characteristics: position, trajectory and speed. The results will be validated using biomedical experimentation standards in the proposed cell lines.

TRANSFERENCIA CONOCIMIENTO
Microelectronic knowledge and technology transfer about multi-modal crypto-biometrics
PI: Iluminada Baturone Castillo / M. Rosario Arjona López
[+]
Type: Transfer activities
Reference: 5926
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/02/2020
End date: 31/01/2021
Funding: 38.015,00 €
Abstract: This project aims to increase the knowledge and microelectronic technology transfer about multi-modal crypto-biometrics among the applicant research group, which belongs to the PAIDI TIC-180 research group Design of Digital and Mixed Integrated Circuits and carries out its research in the Microelectronic Institute of Seville (IMSE-CNM, joint center of the University of Seville and CSIC), and the Andalusian productive sector, with a clear international projection. For this, the activities of the project will include: (a) conducting a market study and technological surveillance, (b) studying the product orientations that can have the most demand in the market, (c) selecting the crypto-biometric modalities to meet the specifications of the market, (d) developing prototypes and proofs of concept, and (e) promote the technology.

OFICINA PROYECTO
Implantación de un servicio de vigilancia tecnológica para la promoción y comercialización de las tecnologías desarrolladas en el Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla (IMSE-CNM)
PI: Santiago Sánchez Solano web
[+]
Type: Transfer activities
Reference: 5877
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/11/2019
End date: 30/04/2021
Funding: 54.466,67 €
Abstract: El objetivo común de las actuaciones para las que se solicita esta ayuda es aumentar la transferencia a la industria y a la sociedad de los resultados de la investigación desarrollada en el Instituto de Microelectrónica de Sevilla, como base para la mejora de procesos y productos y para el desarrollo de aplicaciones específicas. Para ello se planea la creación de una Unidad de Proyectos y Transferencia con tareas específicas de prospección, difusión, apoyo y fomento de actividades de transferencia.
La puesta en marcha de esta iniciativa obedece a dos motivaciones de distinta naturaleza. Por una parte, se persigue incrementar el retorno de las inversiones y garantizar la transferencia de resultados generados en el Instituto, aumentar su visibilidad en el sector industrial y promover el uso de sus infraestructuras por grupos de investigación externos, así como intensificar la participación en programas de investigación y desarrollo enfocados a la colaboración entre entidades públicas y privadas. Por otra, el centro pretende cumplir su función como Agente del Sistema Andaluz del Conocimiento especializado en el área de la Microelectrónica, poniendo a disposición de las empresas andaluzas los servicios y tecnologías necesarios para el desarrollo de productos innovadores.

NEURO-RADIO
Cognitive radio embedded with neural learning
PI: Luis A. Camuñas Mesa
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: US-1260118
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/02/2020
End date: 31/01/2022
Funding: 30.000,00 €
Abstract: Abstract not available

CRYPTOHARDWEAR
Hardware solutions to face the new cryptographic challenges of wearable devices
PI: Iluminada Baturone Castillo
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: US-1265146
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/02/2020
End date: 31/01/2022
Funding: 89.950,00 €
Abstract: Abstract not available

SPADARCH
Flexible SPAD-Based CMOS Chip Architectures for Time Correlated Single Photon Counting
PI: Juan A. Leñero Bardallo
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: US-1264940
Funding Body: Junta de Andalucía
Start date: 01/02/2020
End date: 31/01/2022
Funding: 90.000,00 €
Abstract: El proyecto SPADARCH propone avances en una línea de investigación ya consolidada dentro del grupo de investigación TIC-179. Esta línea de trabajo se fundamente en el desarrollo de sensores de imagen basados en SPADs (Single Photon Avalanche Diodes). Estas estructuras permiten, entre otras cosas, medir el tiempo de vuelo (TOF) de fotones para calcular la profundidad de objetos, detectar la presencia de fotones individualmente y trabajar en condiciones de muy baja iluminación. El proyecto SPADARCH contempla avanzar en el desarrollo de sensores de imagen basados en SPADs a varios niveles:
- Nivel físico, mediante el diseño de SPADs a bajo nivel.
- Nivel de píxel, mediante el desarrollo de nuevas arquitecturas.
- Nivel de sensor, mediante la implementación de circuitos periféricos que mejoren la operación de los sensores a desarrollar.
- Nivel de post-procesamiento, mediante el desarrollo de algoritmos que permitan extraer información relevante de la escena visual.
- Nivel de aplicación, orientando los desarrollos hacia aplicaciones o contextos de aplicación específicos.

 
APPROVIS3D
Analog PROcessing of bioinspired VIsion Sensors for 3D reconstruction
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco / Teresa Serrano Gotarredona
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: CHIST-ERA 2018-ACAI, Ref: PCI2019-111826-2
Funding Body: European Union
Start date: 01/04/2020
End date: 31/03/2023
Funding: 149.772,00 €
Abstract: APROVIS3D project targets analog computing for artificial intelligence in the form of Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) on a mixed analog and digital architecture. The project includes including field programmable analog array (FPAA) and SpiNNaker applied to a stereopsis system dedicated to coastal surveillance using an aerial robot. Computer vision systems widely rely on artificial intelligence and especially neural network based machine learning, which recently gained huge visibility. The training stage for deep convolutional neural networks is both time and energy consuming. In contrast, the human brain has the ability to perform visual tasks with unrivalled computational and energy efficiency. It is believed that one major factor of this efficiency is the fact that information is vastly represented by short pulses (spikes) at analog -not discrete-times. However, computer vision algorithms using such representation still lack in practice, and its high potential is largely underexploited. Inspired from biology, the project addresses the scientific question of developing a lowpower, end-to-end analog sensing and processing architecture of 3D visual scenes, running on analog devices, without a central clock and aims to validate them in real-life situations. More specifically, the project will develop new paradigms for biologically inspired vision, from sensing to processing, in order to help machines such as Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAV), autonomous vehicles, or robots gain high-level understanding from visual scenes. The ambitious long-term vision of the project is to develop the next generation AI paradigm that will eventually compete with deep learning. We believe that neuromorphic computing, mainly studied in EU countries, will be a key technology in the next decade. It is therefore both a scientific and strategic challenge for the EU to foster this technological breakthrough. The consortium from four EU countries offers a unique combination of expertise that the project requires. SNNs specialists from various fields, such as visual sensors (IMSE, Spain), neural network architecture and computer vision (Uni. of Lille, France) and computational neuroscience (INT, France) will team up with robotics and automatic control specialists (NTUA, Greece), and low power integrated systems designers (ETHZ, Switzerland) to help geoinformatics researchers (UNIWA, Greece) build a demonstrator UAV for coastal surveillance (TRL5). Adding up to the shared interest regarding analog based computing and computer vision, all team members have a lot to offer given their different and complementary points of view and expertise. Key challenges of this project will be end-to-end analog system design (from sensing to AIbased control of the UAV and 3D coastal volumetric reconstruction), energy efficiency, and practical usability in real conditions. We aim to show that such a bioinspired analog design will bring large benefits in terms of power efficiency, adaptability and efficiency needed to make coastal surveillance with UAVs practical and more efficient than digital approaches.

SPINAGE
Weighted Spintronic-Nano-Oscillator-based Neuromorphic Computing System Assisted by laser for Cognitive Computing
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco / Teresa Serrano Gotarredona
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: H2020-FETOPEN-2020-01-899559
Funding Body: European Union
Start date: 01/09/2020
End date: 31/08/2024
Funding: 437.577,00 €
Abstract: The brain is a highly complex, high performance and low energy computing system due to its massive parallelism and intertwined network, which outperforms the current computers by orders of magnitudes, especially for cognitive computing applications. A large effort has been made into understanding the computing and mimicking the brain into an artificial implementation, so-called neuromorphic computing that has received much attention thanks to the advances in novel nanoscale technologies. The current implementation of the neuromorphic computing systems (NCS) using Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technologies has 5-6 orders of magnitude lower performance (operation/sec/Watt/cm3) compared to the brain. Spintronic devices, using the spin of the electron instead of its charge, have been considered one of the most promising approaches for implementing not only memories but also NCSs leading to a high density, high speed, and energy-efficiency. The main goal of SpinAge is to realize a novel NCS enabling large-scale development of braininspired devices outclassing the performance of current computing machines. This will be achieved by the novel structures using spintronics and memristors, on-chip laser technology, nano electronics and finally advanced integration of all these technologies. We expect this unprecedented combination of emerging technologies will lead to at least 4-5 orders of magnitude better performance than the state-of-the-art CMOS-based NCSs. The approach taken in SpinAge is to implement synaptic neurons using novel nanoscale weighted spin-based nanooscillators, assisted by a low-energy laser pulse irradiation from an integrated plasmonic laser chip, integrated all with the CMOS interfacing electronics for a proof-of-concept of a 16x16 NCS for cognitive computing applications. Our breakthrough platform technology will demonstrate EU leadership of advanced neuromorphic computing.

MEM-SCALES
Memory technologies with multi-scale time constants for neuromorphic architectures
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: H2020-ICT-2019-2-871371
Funding Body: European Union
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 31/12/2022
Funding: 569.926,00 €
Abstract: The project MeM-Scales aims at lifting neuromorphic computing in analog spiking microprocessors to an entirely new level of performance. Work in this project is based on a dedicated commitment that novel hardware and novel computational concepts must be co-evolved in a close interaction between nano-electronic device engineering, circuit and microprocessor design, fabrication technology and computing science (machine learning and nonlinear modeling). A key to reflecting ‘hardware physics ’ in ‘computational function ’ and vice versa is the fundamental role played by multiple timescales. Here MeM-Scales introduces a number of innovations. On the side of physical substrates, novel memory and device technologies, supporting on-chip learning over multiple timescales for both synapses and neurons, will be fabricated. To enable timescales spanning up to 9 (!) orders of magnitude both volatile memory and non-volatile memory as well as Thin Film Transistor technology will be exploited. On the side of computational theory, autonomous learning algorithms and architectures supporting computation over these wide range of timescales will be developed. These computational methods are specifically tailored to cope with the low numerical precision, parameter drift, stochasticity, and device mismatch which are inherent in analog nano-scale devices. These cross-disciplinary efforts will lead to the fabrication of an innovative hardware/ software platform as a basis for future products which combine extreme power efficiency with robust cognitive computing capabilities. This new kind of computing technology will open new perspectives, for instance, for high-dimensional distributed environmental monitoring, implantable medical diagnostic microchips, wearable electronics or human-computer interfacing.

NEURONN
Two-Dimensional Oscillatory Neural Networks for Energy Efficent Neuromorphic computing
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco Press Release
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: H2020-ICT-2019-2-871501
Funding Body: European Union
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 31/12/2022
Funding: 589.440,00 €
Abstract: Neuro-inspired computing architectures are one of the leading candidates to solve complex and large-scale associative learning problems for AI applications. The two key building blocks for neuromorphic computing are the neuron and the synapse, which form the distributed computing and memory units. In the NeurONN project, we are proposing a novel neuroinspired computing architecture where information is encoded in the ‘phase’ of coupled oscillating neurons or oscillatory neural networks (ONN). Specifically, VO2 metal-insulator transition (MIT) devices and 2D memristors will be developed as neurons and synapses for hardware implementations. We predict VO2 MIT devices are up to 250X more energy efficient than state of the art digital CMOS based oscillators, where 2D memristors are up to 330X more energy efficient than state of the art TiO2 memristors. Moreover, the predicted energy efficiency gain of ONN architecture vs state of the art spiking neural network (SNN) architecture is up to 40X. Thus, NeurONN will showcase a novel and alternative energy efficient neuromorphic computing paradigm based on energy efficient devices and architectures. Such ONN will demonstrate synchronization and coupling dynamics for establishing collective learning behavior, in addition to desirable characteristics such as scaling, ultra-low power computation, and high computing performance. NeurONN aims to develop the first-ever ONN hardware platform (targeting two demonstrators) and complete with an ONN design methodology toolbox covering aspects from ONN architecture design to algorithms in order to facilitate adoption, testing and experimentation of ONN demonstrator chips by all potential users to unleash the potential of ONN technology.

HERMES
Hybrid Enhanced Regenerative Medicine Systems
PI: Bernabé Linares Barranco / Teresa Serrano Gotarredona
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: H2020-FET-PROACT-2018-01-824164
Funding Body: European Union
Start date: 2019
End date: 2023
Funding: 438.511,25 €
Abstract: Brain disorders are the most invalidating condition, exceeding HIV, cancer and heart ischemia, with significant impact on society and public health. Regenerative medicine is a promising branch of health science that aims at restoring brain function by rebuilding brain tissue. However, repairing the brain is one of the hardest challenges and we are still unable to effectively rebuild brain matter. Epilepsy is particularly challenging due to its dynamic nature caused by the relentless brain damage and aberrant rearrangements of brain rewiring. To overcome the biological uncertainty of canonical regenerative approaches, we propose an innovative solution based on intelligent biohybrids, made by the symbiotic integration of bioengineered brain tissue, neuromorphic microelectronics and artificial intelligence, to effectively drive self-repair of dysfunctional brain circuits and we validate it against animal models of epilepsy. HERMES fosters the emergence of a novel biomedical paradigm, rooted in the use of biohybrid neuronics (neural electronics), which we name enhanced regenerative medicine. To this end, HERMES will promote interdisciplinary cross-fertilization within and outside the consortium; it will extend the concepts of enhanced brain regeneration to philosophy, ethics, policy and society to foster the emergence of a new innovation eco-system. Intelligent biohybrids will represent a major breakthrough to advance brain repair research beyond regenerative medicine and neurotechnology alone; it will bring new knowledge in neurobiology, cognitive neuroscience and philosophy, and new neuromorphic technology and AI algorithms. HERMES will bring a giant conceptual leap that will shift the concept of biomedical interventions from treating to healing. In turn, it will potentially generate major returns on health care and society at large by bringing previously unimaginable possibilities to defeat disorders that represent today a global major burden of disease.

ACHIEVE
Advanced Hardware/Software Components for Integrated/Embedded Vision Systems
PI: Ricardo Carmona Galán web
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: 765866
Funding Body: European Union
Start date: 01/10/2017
End date: 30/09/2021
Funding: 2.230.856,64 €
Abstract: ACHIEVE-ETN aims at training a new generation of scientists through a research programme on highly integrated hardware-software components for the implementation of ultra-efficient embedded vision systems as the basis for innovative distributed vision applications. They will develop core skills in multiple disciplines, from image sensor design to distributed vision algorithms, and at the same time they will share the multidisciplinary background that is necessary to understand complex problems in information-intensive vision-enabled aplliccations. Concurrently, they will develop a set of transferable skills to promote their ability to cast their research results into new products and services, as well as to boost their career solutions for emerging technology markets in Europe and worldwide but also to drive new businesses through engaging in related entrepreneurial activities. The consortium is composed of 6 academic and 1 insdustrial beneficiaries and 4 industrial partners. The training of the 9 ESRs will be achieved by the proper combination of excellent research, secondments with industry, specific courses on core and transferable skills, and academic-industrial workshops and networking events, all in compliance with the call´s objectives of international, intersectoral and interdisciplinary mobility.

 
I-COOP+ 2019
Advanced Training in Digital System Design Techniques as a Basis for Promoting Innovation and Technological Development in Cuban Society
PI: Santiago Sánchez Solano
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: COOPB20420
Funding Body: CSIC
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 31/12/2021
Funding: 23.958,00 €
Abstract: Continuous advances in microelectronic technologies have led to the development of reconfigurable hardware devices (FPGAs) that provide an increasing variety of resources for the implementation of complex digital systems, including those that incorporate powerful processing systems to facilitate the realization of embedded systems combining hardware and software elements on a single programmable chip (SoPC). The design of this type of system is key for the development of the applications and services that sustain the modern Digital Society, which is why it currently enjoys wide international relevance. Concurrently, in recent years have also appeared new methodologies and design environments based on the use of high-level synthesis tools (HLS) and hardware/software co-design techniques (SDSoC) that allow carrying out the processes of description, simulation and implementation of complex digital systems with a level of abstraction much higher than the previous ones, greatly increasing the productivity of designers and promoting the development of innovation projects.

The main objective of the proposed action is the training of Cuban university professors and researchers in the new of digital systems design techniques based on reconfigurable hardware devices (FPGA and SoC FPGA), as well as the incorporation of their teaching in master's and doctorate programs with electronic profile of Cuban universities in order to promote its use in the development of various R&D&I projects that benefit from its introduction. The strengthening of the scientific-technical capacities of Cuban research groups for the design and development of embedded digital systems on reconfigurable devices will provide, as main advantages, the reduction of their technological dependence and the increase of innovation activities in basic infrastructures and production systems, favoring the economic growth of the country.

i-LINK 2019
Advancing in cybersecurity technologies
PI: Piedad Brox Jiménez
[+]
Type: Research project
Reference: LINKA20216
Funding Body: CSIC
Start date: 01/01/2020
End date: 21/12/2021
Funding: 23.738,00 €
Abstract: In current digitalized socities, cybersecurity is crucial to protect and preserve the growing social and economic benefits of Information Communication Technlology (ICT) systems. The rapid implantation and proliferation of these systems, as well as society´s overwhelming reliance on them, has exposed its fragility and vulnerabilities against attacks. New solutions of cyber-defense require multidisciplinary research groups that analyze hardware, software, networks and data security, not as isolated elements, but taking into account that they interrelate with each other and, therefore, trusted chains must be provided for the entire system.
The main objective of this proposal is to develop, deploy and integrate novel cybersecurity technologies that ensure the integrity, resilience and reliability of ICT systems. To achieve this goal, the consortium integrates three complementary research teams specialized in network and software security (University of Tampere, Finland), system security (University of Michigan, USA), and cryptography and hardware security (CSIC). This project encourages the collaboration by means of the participation in seminars that promote the exchange of ideas, medium-term stays of researchers to validate the proposed techniques, and the definition of a strategic plan to hold this collaboration over time submitting project proposals to international competitive calls, as well as analyzing agreements with foreign institutions involved in this project to facilitate collaboration.

IndieTEST
Indirect test solutions for analog, mixed-signal, and RF integrated systems
PI: Gildas Léger
[+]
Type: Proyectos bilaterales
Reference: PIC2016FR5
Funding Body: CSIC
Start date: 01/01/2017
End date: 31/12/2019
Funding: 10.000,00 €
Abstract: The combination of indirect test and built-In Self-Test (BIST) is a promising solution to mitigate the increasing cost of testing complex mixed-signal integrated systems. Indirect test replaces complex specification measurements by simpler signatures, and then uses moden data analysis algorithms to map these signatures onto the specification space. Signatures can be efficiently monitored by simple on-chip test instruments that can be integrated together with the system under test. Indirect test is then an interesting path to enable cost-effective BIST for mixed-signal systems. This PICS project has the goal of developing reliable and accurate built-in indirect test methods for complex mixed-signal systems. The project is structured into two interconnected research lines: a) Combining causal inference techniques with feature selection anda feature extraction algotirhms for indirect test, and b) Developing a feature-driven strategy for the definition of on-chip test instruments.