IMSE Publications

Recent publications

Design and Evaluation of Countermeasures Against Fault Injection Attacks and Power Side-Channel Leakage Exploration for AES Block Cipher
F.E. Potestad-Ordóñez, E. Tena-Sánchez, A.J. Acosta-Jiménez, C.J. Jiménez-Fernández and R. Chaves
Journal Paper · IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp 65548-65561, 2022
ISSN: 2169-3536
abstract      doi      

Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) and Power Analysis (PA) attacks, have become the main methods for exploiting the vulnerabilities of physical implementations of block ciphers, currently used in a multitude of applications, such as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). In order to minimize these types of vulnerabilities, several mechanisms have been proposed to detect fault attacks. However, these mechanisms can have a significant cost, not fully covering the implementations against fault attacks or not taking into account the leakage of the information exploitable by the power analysis attacks. In this paper, four different approaches are proposed with the aim of protecting the AES block cipher against DFA. The proposed solutions are based on Hamming code and parity bits as signature generators for the internal state of the AES cipher. These allow to detect DFA exploitable faults, from bit to byte level. The proposed solutions have been applied to a T-box based AES block cipher implemented on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). Experimental results suggest a fault coverage of 98.5% and 99.99% with an area penalty of 9% and 36% respectively, for the parity bit signature generators and a fault coverage of 100% with an area penalty of 18% and 42% respectively when Hamming code signature generator is used. In addition, none of the proposed countermeasures impose a frequency degradation, in respect to the unprotected cipher. The proposed work goes further in the evaluation of the proposed DFA countermeasures by evaluating the impact of these structures in terms of power side-channel. The obtained results suggest that no extra information leakage is produced that can be exploited by PA. Overall, the proposed DFA countermeasures provide a high fault coverage protection with a low cost in terms of area and power consumption and no PA security degradation.

Review of Breaking Trivium Stream Cipher Implemented in ASIC using Experimental Attacks and DFA
F.E. Potestad-Ordoñez, E. Tena-Sánchez, C. Fernández-García, V. Zúñiga-González, J.M. Mora Gutiérrez, C. Baena-Oliva, P. Parra-Fernández, A.J. Acosta-Jiménez and C.J. Jiménez-Fernández
Conference · Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad JNIC 2022

In this paper, we present a review of the work [1]. In this work a complete setup to break ASIC implementations of standard Trivium stream cipher was presented. The setup allows to recover the secret keys combining the use of the active noninvasive technique attack of clock manipulation and Differential Fault Analysis (DFA) cryptanalysis. The attack system is able to inject transient faults into the Trivium in a clock cycle and sample the faulty output. Then, the internal state of the Trivium is recovered using the DFA cryptanalysis through the comparison between the correct and the faulty outputs. The secret key of the Trivium were recovered experimentally in 100% of the attempts, considering a real scenario and minimum assumptions.
[1] F.E. Potestad-Ordoñez, M. Valencia-Barrero, C. Baena-Oliva, P. Parra-Fernández, C.J. Jiménez-Fernández, "Breaking Trivium Stream Cipher Implemented in ASIC using Experimental Attacks and DFA". In Sensors, vol. 20, num. 6909, pp. 1-19, 2020.

Review of Gate-Level Hardware Countermeasure Comparison Against Power Analysis Attacks
E. Tena-Sánchez, F.E. Potestad-Ordoñez, V. Zúñiga-González, C. Fernández-García, J.M. Mora Gutiérrez, C.J. Jiménez-Fernández and A.J. Acosta-Jiménez
Conference · Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad JNIC 2022

In this paper, we present a review of the work [1]. The fast settlement of Privacy and Secure operations in the Internet of Things (IoT) is appealing the selection of mechanisms to achieve a higher level of security at the minimum cost and with reasonable performances. In recent years, dozens of proposals have been presented to design circuits resistant to Power Analysis attacks. In this paper a deep review of the state of the art of gate-level countermeasures against Power Analysis attacks has been done, performing a comparison between hiding approaches (the power consumption is intended to be the same for all the data processed) and the ones considering a masking procedure (the data are masked and behave as random). The most relevant proposals in the literature, 35 for hiding and 6 for masking, have been analyzed, not only by using data provided by proposers, but also those included in other references for comparison.
[1] E. Tena-Sánchez, F.E. Potestad-Ordoñez, C.J. Jiménez-Fernández, A.J. Acosta and R. Chaves, "Gate-Level Hardware Countermeasure Comparison against Power Analysis Attacks," Applied Sciences, 12(5), 2390, 2022.

Electronically Foveated Dynamic Vision Sensor
T. Serrano-Gotarredona, F. Faramarzi and B. Linares-Barranco
Conference · IEEE International Conference on Omni-Layer Intelligent Systems COINS 2022

This paper proposed a vision system which implements a foveal mechanism to concentrate the attention and dynamically control the center and size of region of interest. The core of the system is an electronically-foveated dynamic vision sensor. An architecture and implementation of an electronically-foveated dynamic vision sensor is proposed. Simulation results demonstrating its operation are provided.

Hardware dedicado para la optimización temporal del algoritmo NTRU
E. Camacho-Ruiz, M.C. Martínez-Rodríguez, S. Sánchez-Solano and Piedad Brox
Conference · Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad JNIC 2022

Los actuales algoritmos criptográficos se encuentran amenazados por la inminente llegada de la computación cuántica, por lo que los organismos internacionales, especialmente aquellos relacionados con la ciberseguridad, están potenciando el estudio e implementación de algoritmos que permitan volver a establecer entornos seguros de comunicación. En concreto, se plantean los algoritmos criptográficos post-cuánticos. Dentro de los algoritmos propuestos se encuentra el NTRU. Su principal inconveniente es el excesivo tiempo que requiere la multiplicación de polinomios usada en el proceso de cifrado. Por ello, este trabajo tiene como principal objetivo estudiar la posibilidad de utilizar hardware dedicado para acelerar la multiplicación. El uso de técnicas de codiseño hardware/software permite una implementación eficiente del criptosistema, donde las partes más costosas se ejecutan a nivel hardware. Este breve resumen recoge las últimas aportaciones que el grupo de investigación ha realizado en esta línea.

Diseño y evaluación de las prestaciones de funciones físicas no clonables basadas en osciladores en anillo sobre FPGAs
M.C. Martínez-Rodríguez, E. Camacho-Ruiz, P. Brox and S. Sánchez-Solano
Conference · Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad JNIC 2022

Los esquemas de seguridad basados en funciones físicas no clonables aprovechan las características intrínsecas del hardware para mejorar la seguridad de los dispositivos electrónicos. Este resumen presenta dos trabajos para diseñar y caracterizar funciones físicas no clonables basados en osciladores en anillo propuestas por nuestro grupo de investigación. El primero se centra en el flujo de diseño y caracterización basado en una herramienta incluida en el entorno de Matlab, mientras que el segundo presenta y caracteriza una función física no clonable basada en osciladores en anillo muy compacta y altamente configurable usando un flujo de diseño para sistemas empotrados basado en el entorno PYNQ.

Secure Platform for ICT Systems Rooted at the Silicon Manufacturing Process (SPIRS)
P. Brox, M.C. Martínez-Rodríguez and D. Arroyo
Conference · Jornadas Nacionales de Investigación en Ciberseguridad JNIC 2022

Internet of Things and ubiquitous/pervasive computing are shaping our world where smart devices enter every aspect of our everyday life. This is why privacy-enhancing technologies are all the more important. In this context, the Eufunded ‘Secure Platform for ICT Systems Rooted at the Silicon Manufacturing Process’ project will design a platform that integrates a hardware dedicated Root-of-Trust and a processor core with the capability of offering a full suite of security services. The platform will be able to leverage this capability to support privacy respectful attestation mechanisms and enable trusted communication channels across 5G infrastructures. The project will also provide solutions to integrate the platform in the deployment of cryptographic protocols and network infrastructures in a trustworthy way.

Automated Design of Sigma-Delta Converters: From Know-How to AI-assisted Optimization
J.M. de la Rosa
Conference · IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems MWSCAS 2022

The design of analog and mixed-signal circuits is based on the well-known top-down/bottom-up methodology, which involves a number of tasks at different abstraction levels of the system hierarchy: from specifications to circuit implementation. Although there have had many efforts to optimize analog synthesis and verification procedures, existing CAD methods and tools are far from an automated design flow, as that commonly used in digital circuits.
In this scenario, this talk presents an overview of the automated design and optimization of Analog-to-Digital Converters (ADCs), which are one of the key building blocks in a vast number of digital-driven electronic systems. Without loss of generality, Sigma-Delta Modulators (ΣΔMs) are taken as case study to illustrate the analysis, modeling and design techniques under discussion. Special emphasis is put on how to combine the knowledge derived from state-of-the-art optimization algorithms, with heuristic methods and know-how, as well as recent approaches based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms, in order to maximize the performance of M ADCs while keeping computational efficiency high.

Graphic user interface for learning communications physics
M.C. Martínez-Rodríguez and L.A. Camuñas-Mesa
Conference · Congreso de Tecnología, Aprendizaje y Enseñanza de la Electrónica TAEE 2022

Learning signal processing both in time and frequency domain is usually limited to receiving a deep theoretical background. In order to improve the understanding of this topic, we propose some practical experiments writing scripts in Matlab&Simulink environment, including the development of a Graphic User Interface (GUI) illustrating the main concepts about signal processing and reinforcing the theory learned previously.

Learning about nanodevices using experimental characterization equipment
L.A. Camuñas-Mesa and M.C. Martínez-Rodríguez
Conference · Congreso de Tecnología, Aprendizaje y Enseñanza de la Electrónica TAEE 2022

Learning about emerging nanodevices for university students is usually limited to theoretical descriptions, given the lack of availability of such devices and appropriate test equipment in standard electronics labs. However, the possibility to develop some practical work is crucial to improve the understanding of theoretical concepts. In the framework of the ‘Nanomaterials and nanotechnology’ course (4th year of the Degree on Materials Engineering), this paper presents some practical experiments to test and characterize memristive devices using an affordable lab setup with commercial equipment.
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