Secure Combination of IoT and Blockchain by Physically Binding IoT Devices to Smart Non-Fungible Tokens using PUFs J. Arcenegui, R. Arjona, R. Román and I. Baturone Journal Paper · Sensors, vol. 21, no. 9, article 3119, 2021 resumendoipdf
Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are widely used in blockchain to represent unique and non-interchangeable assets. Current NFTs allow representing assets by a unique identifier, as a possession of an owner. The novelty introduced in this paper is the proposal of smart NFTs to represent IoT devices, which are physical smart assets. Hence, they are also identified as the utility of a user, they have a blockchain account (BCA) address to participate actively in the blockchain transactions, they can establish secure communication channels with owners and users, and they operate dynamically with several modes associated with their token states. A smart NFT is physically bound to its IoT device thanks to the use of a physical unclonable function (PUF) that allows recovering its private key and, then, its BCA address. The link between tokens and devices is difficult to break and can be traced during their lifetime, because devices execute a secure boot and carry out mutual authentication processes with new owners and users that could add new software. Hence, devices prove their trusted hardware and software. A whole demonstration of the proposal developed with ESP32-based IoT devices and Ethereum blockchain is presented, using the SRAM of the ESP32 microcontroller as the PUF.
A Quantum-Resistant and Fast Secure Boot for IoT Devices using Hash-Based Signatures and SRAM PUFs R. Román and I. Baturone Conference · EAI International Conference on Safety and Security in Internet of Things SaSeIoT 2021 resumen