The project MeM-Scales aims at lifting neuromorphic computing in analog spiking microprocessors to an entirely new level of performance. Work in this project is based on a dedicated commitment that novel hardware and novel computational concepts must be co-evolved in a close interaction between nano-electronic device engineering, circuit and microprocessor design, fabrication technology and computing science (machine learning and nonlinear modeling). A key to reflecting ‘hardware physics ’ in ‘computational function ’ and vice versa is the fundamental role played by multiple timescales. Here MeM-Scales introduces a number of innovations. On the side of physical substrates, novel memory and device technologies, supporting on-chip learning over multiple timescales for both synapses and neurons, will be fabricated. To enable timescales spanning up to 9 (!) orders of magnitude both volatile memory and non-volatile memory as well as Thin Film Transistor technology will be exploited. On the side of computational theory, autonomous learning algorithms and architectures supporting computation over these wide range of timescales will be developed. These computational methods are specifically tailored to cope with the low numerical precision, parameter drift, stochasticity, and device mismatch which are inherent in analog nano-scale devices. These cross-disciplinary efforts will lead to the fabrication of an innovative hardware/ software platform as a basis for future products which combine extreme power efficiency with robust cognitive computing capabilities. This new kind of computing technology will open new perspectives, for instance, for high-dimensional distributed environmental monitoring, implantable medical diagnostic microchips, wearable electronics or human-computer interfacing.